Certain medical conditions, particularly those affecting the brain or nervous system – such as Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, dementia, multiple sclerosis and brain damage – can cause incontinence. This is due to the nerve passageways from the brain becoming damaged. The result can be either an overactive bladder (the need to go often and frequently) or an under-active bladder (ineffective emptying leading to leakage). It can also lead to faecal incontinence. Diabetes or a stroke can also bring on incontinence.